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Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii, but not B. garinii, are able to escape complement attack by binding factor H via OspE proteins. Recent finding of ospE genes also in B. garinii isolates has raised the question whether, under in vivo-conditions, B. garinii also expresses OspE proteins and consequently induces an antibody response. We set up an IgG ELISA by using recombinant OspE as an antigen. Sixty percent of acute and 64% of convalescent 25 erythema migrans patient samples were positive for anti-OspE antibodies. Anti-OspE antibodies were also found in the sera (83.6%) and cerebrospinal fluids (36%) of patients with neuroborreliosis. Since B. garinii is the major causative agent of neuroborreliosis, the result suggests that OspE is expressed by B. garinii in vivo. Of the 10 acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans patients, 80% had anti-OspE antibodies. Anti-OspE antibody positive sera inhibited factor H binding to Borrelia more efficiently than normal control sera (65% vs. 33.7%). Our results indicate that Borrelia spirochetes, including B. garinii, can induce the production of anti-OspE antibodies. This implies that OspE protein is produced in vivo by B. garinii possibly enabling it to escape complement and cause a CNS infection.