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Regulatory T, natural killer T and gamma delta T cells in multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a comparison

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By S. Ramos et al.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) may share some similarities in relation to reduced NK cell activity. It is likely that other cells such as regulatory T (Tregs), invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) and gamma delta T (gamma delta T) cells may also be dysregulated in CFS/ME and MS.

OBJECTIVES:To evaluate and compare specific immune regulatory cells of patients with CFS/ME, patients with MS and healthy controls.

METHODS:Sixty three volunteers were included in this study, 24 were CFS/ME patients, 11 MS patients and 27 healthy controls. Blood samples were obtained from all the participants for flow cytometer analysis of iNKT cell, Tregs and γδ T cell phenotypes.

RESULTS:We observed significant increase in Tregs in the CFS/ME group (p≤0.005) compared with the healthy controls group. Total gamma delta and gamma delta 2 T cells were significantly reduced in the MS patients in comparison with the healthy controls group. Conversely, CD4+iNKT percentage of iNKT, was significantly increased in the CFS/ME group compared with healthy controls and double negative iNKT percentage of iNKT significantly decreased compared with the healthy controls group.

CONCLUSION:This study has not identified immunological disturbances that are common in both MS and CFS/ME patients. However differential expression of cell types between the conditions investigated suggests different pathways of disease. These differences need to be explored in further studies.

Source: Ramos S, Brenu E, Broadley S, Kwiatek R, Ng J, Nguyen T, Freeman S, Staines D, Marshall-Gradisnik S. Regulatory T, natural killer T and γδ T cells in multiple sclerosis and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a comparison. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2016 Mar 20. doi: 10.12932/AP0733. [Epub ahead of print]

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